Prescriptivism. Polish and English Dialects.

  1. Approaches to language (correctness)
    • descriptive - independent and creative investigation of grammatical linguistic constructions; no form is more correct than any other;
    • prescriptive – proposing rules that would defend the language standard and prevent language decay.
      • Language planning
        • "Language planning involves the creation and implementation of an official policy about how the languages and linguistic varieties of a country are to be used" (Crystal 364).
        • Two kinds of language planning
          • status planning, aimed at changes in use of language in society, its status against other languages: can develop a marker of national, ethnic identity; initiated by linguists, academies, committees, societies;
          • corpus planning, aimed at changes in corpus or structure of language, giving new terminology, resolving questions of correctness and supporting an ideological cause; initiated government departments and agencies;
      • The choice of these rules may be guided by the criteria of
        • language economy - redundancy is an error
        • language functionality, semantic adequacy - vagueness is an error;
        • paradigmatic and syntagmatic acceptability - e.g. words that do not conform to Polish inflectional paradigms or violate Polish phonotactic rules are errors
        • popularity in the speech of educated persons
        • formal-logical - poszłem is an error as it does not fit the inflectional paradigm, e.g. *poszłbym; notice however formal gaps and illogial constructs that are accepted, e.g. suppletion and double negation
        • the origin of a form - *sejwować instead of zapisywać
        • geography - Polish and BrE standard varieties are not restricted to one geographical region and this criterion does not operate. In US, non-midwest dialectal forms are considered substandard.
        • literary usage - hypothetical: *komputer instead of mózg elektronowy (W.Szymborska)
        • tradition - at the beginning of the 19th c. skaut used instead of harcerz was an error since skaut was new in Polish whereas harcerz was historically motivated by a name for a soldier.
  2. Different varieties of language
    • language standard - a variety of language, based on the more prestiguous variety, regarded as the only 'correct' variety. In terms of the "mode of transmission" and style, language standatd can be described as spoken literary colloquial variety of language.
       -------------------------------------------------------------------
       |                    |   artistic   |  colloquial  |  specialised |
       -------------------------------------------------------------------
       | written |          |              |              |              |
       ---------+ literary + --------------------------------------------
       |         |          |              |   standard   |              |
       |         |--------------------------------------------------------
       | spoken  | urban    |              |              |              |
       |         |--------------------------------------------------------
       |         | folk     |              |              |              |
       -------------------------------------------------------------------
    • regional accent - features of pronunciation which convey information about a person's geographical origin. For SAMPA transcription see http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/sampa
      e.g. hold /h@Uld/ vs. /@Uld/ (RP vs. East Anglia Dialect)
           bath /baT/ vs. /bA:T/ (?? vs. RP)
           rękami /re~kami/ vs. /re~kamy/ (Standard Polish vs. Mazovian Dialect)
           liść /lis'c'/ vs. /l~is'c'/ (Standard Polish vs. Bialystok Accent)
    • regional dialect - features of grammar and vocabulary which convey information about a person's geographical origin
      e.g. he's gotten a car vs. he's got a car (AmE vs. BrE)
           quarter to 11 vs. quarter of 11 (AmE Virginia Dialect vs New Eng Dialect)
           He's after telling a lie vs. He's told me a lie (Hiberno-English vs. RP)
           ta\nczyła trojak vs. ta\nczyła trojaka (Silesian Dialect vs. Standard Polish)
      Speakers, who use a regional dialect will have a regional accent. The reverse does not necessarily follow.
  3. Language varieties in Polish and English
    • Language standards
      • In Poland, Standard/Literary Polish; Originated from from Great Poland, later acquired some dialectal features of Little Poland and Mazovia.
      • in Britain, Received Pronunciation (RP)
      • in USA, General American (GA)
    • Regional dialects in Polish and English
             + - Kashubian (free/initial w.stress; /s',z',c',dz'/=/s,z,c,dz/;/i//y//u/=e";/a~/=/i/:kląć /klic/)
             |
    Polish - |              + - Great Polish (diphtongization: a=ou, o=ue, u=yu, -y=yj; sandhi voicing)
             |              |
             |              | - Little Polish (-ch=-k; -s-=-ss-; mazurzenie; sandhi voicing)
             + - Mainland - | 
                            | - Silesian (/-Sy/=/-Si/; /e~/=/a~/; bych; sandhi voicing)
                            |
                            + - Mazovian (p'=p'j:p'ivo=p'ijvo, /y/=/i/:syn /sin/; ja-=je-; -ar-=-er-;mazurzenie)
    
                                                            + - Northeast (hill /hIll/)
                                + - Northern (made /med/) - | 
                                |                           + - Lower North (hill /Ill/)
          + - North (up /Up/) - |
          |                     |                           + - West Central (long /lQNg/)
          |                     + - Central (made /meId/) - |
          |                                                 + - Eastern Central (long /lQN/)
    BrE - |
          |                         
          |                     + - East (cars /kA:z/)
          |                     |
          + - South (up /Vp/) - | 
                                |
                                + - Southwest (cars /kA:rz/)
    (cf. Crystal 325)
    
          + - Northern (car /kA:/)
          |
    AmE - | - Midland (cot/caught /kQt/)
          |
          + - Southern (car /kA:/) ??
    (cf. Crystal 312)
    

     e-mail: krynicki@ifa.amu.edu.pl
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